The Auger process where Auger electrons are emitted from atoms was named after him, despite the fact that Lise Meitner discovered the process a few years before in 1923.
In his work with cosmic rays, he found that the cosmic radiation events were coincident in time meaning that they were associated with a single event, an air shower. He estimated that the energy of the incoming particle that creates large air showers must be at least 1015 electronvolts (eV) = 106 particles of 108 eV (critical energy in air) and a factor of ten for energy loss from traversing the atmosphere (Auger et al., 1939).
The world's largest cosmic ray detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, is named after him.
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